Thursday, July 23, 2020

C++ vs Python The Best Ever Comparison Between OOPs

C++ vs Python The Best Ever Comparison Between OOPs When we talk about the general-purpose programming languages, then the first two languages that come into our mind is C++ and Python. There are a lot of differences between C++ vs Python. The only similarity between these two is the general-purpose languages. Lets start with a short introduction to C++. We can say that it is the successor of the C language with object-oriented capabilities. On the other hand, Python is the most popular high-level programming language in the world. It is quite easy to use; the most uniques feature of Python is that you do not need to declare variables in Python. C++ Summary C++Uses of C++PythonUses of PythonC++ vs PythonCode lengthFlexibilityEase of learningSpeedMemory ManagementReadabilityC++PythonDeclarationSpecial functionsPython vs C++ syntaxCareer AspectsCompaniesConclusion (C++ vs Python) C++ is one of the most popular and widely used general-purpose programming languages. It is used to develop complex systems where the hardware level coding requires. But C++ is not portable like other high-level programming languages. You need to compile the C++ code every time if you want to run it on another machine. It is having a lot of similarities with the C language. Bjarne Stroustrup developed C++ in late 1979. It is one of the most powerful high-level programming languages. Most of the programmers call it C with classes. Uses of C++ When we talk about hardware-level coding, then C++ is the first choice of the developers. It is used to produce almost every embedded system. e.g., smartwatches, stopwatches, multimedia systems in automobiles, electric cars systems, IoT devices, etc.We can also develop the servers and the high-performance microcontroller programs. Microcontroller programs can be found in factories.Game development is the key to C++. That is the reason C++ is becoming more popular among game developers. We can create 3D games, multiplayer, and many more types of games using C++. One of the leading game development framework Unity is also written in C++.C++ is also used to create the compiler for other programming languages. Did you know that almost every programming language compilers are created with the help of C++. Python Python is the most powerful general-purpose programming language. It is widely used in machine learning in Big Data technologies. Python was created in late 1991 by Guido van Rossum, the dutch programmer. It is the only programming language in the world that has the best code readability. When the Python was created, it was built with the motive to make its programming most straightforward than any programming language. Python code depends on the indentation apart from the complex structure. Apart from that Python is an interpreted language. It means that python code needs not to be converted into machine language at the runtime. Did you know that Python still ranks among the simplest programming language in the world. It is quite close to pseudocode. Therefore its code is quite readable and beautiful. Moreover, it has plenty of libraries that make it extremely powerful. The popularity of Python is making it the most desirable language in the current industry. Uses of Python Python is widely used with machine learning. In other words, Python code is compatible with machine learning. Thus the program created with Python has the capabilities of machine learning. In contrast, it is helping in various industries such as retail, banking, aerospace, and many more. It helps in getting useful insight into the business to make plans.When it comes to the data analyst, their first choice is Python programming language. The reason is that Python has the ability to manage the massive amount of data with ease and cost-effective way. Data analysts use it to analyze the data and statistical information.Web developers also use Python for developing the most complex web application. Python offers the Django framework. You can also create the entire sites using Python, but it is quite challenging to do.Python is also useful in Big data technologies. Most of the significant data functions can be performed using Python programming. C++ vs Python Code length C++ is using the predefined structure to write the code in it. It means that whenever you do start coding in C++, you need to follow the structure. Therefore the code written in C++ becomes more lengthy than Python. But wait C++ offers the fast prototyping features. With this feature, you can code in C++ with a rapid pace. On the other hand, Python doesnt have a predefined structure. Therefore you can write simple code in Python and make your code much shorter. Flexibility C++ is using the compiler for the compilation of the code. Thus it does not allow you to run the same code on other machines or operating systems. If you want to run the same program on different computers. Then you need to compile the program on other machines to run it. On the other hand, Python uses the interpreter to run the code. Therefore you can run the Python program on almost every computer or operating system. But the Python should be installed on the computer. Ease of learning C++ is quite complicated when it comes to learning. It has lots of predefined syntaxes and structure. On the other hand, Python is close to plain English. Therefore it is easier to learn. C++ is worked very close to the hardware; therefore, a wrong C++ program can destroy the entire system. If we talk about the compile steps, then Python has the number of compile steps depends on the length and functions of the code. But on the other hand, Python has zero compile steps. You can run the Python code by simply typing the name of the program with .py extension. As a beginner, you can find the best community support for Python because Python has the largest community than any other programming language. You can also find the documentation of Python on its official sites. If you face any problem using Python then you can directly ask for help in its community. On the other hand, C++ doesnt have well-written documentation. But it has the community to solve the issues of the programmers. Speed It is the key to every programming language. Speed matters a lot when it comes to real-time systems. Nowadays, lots of industries are working on real-time systems. Therefore the language has to be fast to run the real-time systems. C++ is faster than Python. Python is slower because it is also written in C language. Memory Management Memory management is quite complex in C++. It allows you to allocate the memory to the new variables and also deallocate the memory from the variable when it is no longer requires in the code. If you dont do the same, then there are also the chances of memory leak in C++. Because C++ doesnt support the garbage collection. On the other hand, there is no need to allocate and deallocate memory in Python. Because Python does it on its own, it does the memory management job with the memory allocation feature. Readability C++ code readability is weak as compared with Python. The reason is C++ has a lot of syntaxes that are entirely overwhelming when it comes to readability. C++ also lacks the indentation rules. Thus the code is like garbage in some points. On the other hand, Python has more English like syntax. It allows the indentation rules; thus, the programmer can keep track of every opened bracket. Lets explain the readability with the help of a simple example. C++ class HelloWorld { public: void PrintHelloCalltutor() { std::cout Hello Calltutor! ; } }; Python print(Hello Calltutor!) Declaration If we want to use any data type in C++. Then we need to declare the data type each time we use. Therefore we do have the proper command over when we have declared the datatype. It also becomes less ambiguous that what the code is going to do with the datatype. Thus it is quite easy to find and handle errors in C++. On the other hand, if we want to write the code in Python, then we need not declare the type of data. Therefore the length of the code becomes shorter and easier to maintain. For example, in C++ code the data type will declare as int a=10, and in Python a=10 Special functions C++ is having the features of both the high-level language and low-level language. Thus it is also known as the intermediate level programming language. Apart from that, it also has all the features of the object-oriented programming language. Some of the top OOPs features of C++ are class, operator overloading, multiple inheritances, exception handling, etc. On the other hand, Python is the most simple and powerful high-level programming language. It has some inbuilt constructor for executing clear code for large and small scale. It is also an object-oriented programming language. Python vs C++ syntax C++ has complex syntax as compared with Python. It requires the semicolons and brackets to work. You cant run the C++ code without using semicolons and brackets. On the other hand, Python offers a user-friendly approach to code into it. The entire structure of Python programming depends on the code indentation. In other words, we can say that the indentation creates the structure of code in Python. We write an end of the line at the end of the statement that replaces the uses of the semicolon in Python. We can also use the backslash within our code if we do not want to break our line of code. C++ uses the semicolon at the end of each line. Career Aspects C++ Career opportunity Junior ProgrammerSoftware DeveloperQuality AnalystGame ProgrammerSoftware Developer EngineerProgramming ArchitectUNIX Shell ScriptingBackend DeveloperEmbedded EngineerDatabase Developer Career in Python Python DeveloperProduct ManagerData AnalystEducatorFinancial AdvisorsData JournalistResearch AnalystData ScientistSoftware EngineerSoftware Developer Companies Companies using C++ GoogleTwitchAccenturePubuYummlyQuizUpYextFiveStarsAnimotoMediamath Companies using Python InstagramGoogleSpotifyNetflixUberDropboxPinterestInstacartredditlyft Conclusion (C++ vs Python) If we talk about the conclusion from the above discussion on C++ vs Python, we get that C++ is quite faster than the Python. Thus it is the best option to build real-time applications. Whenever we want to create real-time apps or on the go apps, then C++ is the first choice. The Majority of companies are using C++ is developing their platforms. One of the famous search engines, Google are utilizing both C++ and Python to provide unmatched performance to the users. Apart from that Python is having better Graphic capabilities as compared with C++. Nowadays, lots of companies on their online apps to attract more users. Python provides the best framework to develop and create robust and eye-catchy web applications. Instagram, Google, Netflix, and many more companies are utilizing this feature of Python. But wait, if we want to do code to the hardware level, then there is no competition between C++ vs Python because C++ can code to the hardware level. It is the only language that is the combination of low and high-level programming languages. Thus you can utilize the hardware to its full potential without doing the complex coding. Thats why C++ is becoming the first choice for gaming console developers. Both C++ and Python are having a decent future scope. But if you want to be more than just a developer, then you should opt for Python. Otherwise, you can choose to C++ to become the C++ developer. We do have both C++ programming experts and Python programming experts. They have plenty of years of experience in their fields. Therefore they can provide you the best C++ programming help and Python programming help. Along with they are also capable of offering you the best C++ assignment help and C++ homework help.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Spies And Commissars The Early Years Of The Soviet...

The political world paid a lot of attention to the events that took place during the Bolshevik Revolution of October 1917, which brought Russia’s relationship with the West to a new level. The new communist regime attracted the attention of leaders throughout the world. In Robert Service’s book Spies and Commissars: the early years of the Russian revolution, the author guides the reader through the entire revolution and describes West’s attitude towards the formation of new political ideology in Russia. Service shows how the West used actionable intelligence in hopes of undermining Bolsheviks and influencing their politics in the Eastern Europe. The Western Allies were ready to do what it takes to bring down Trotsky and Lenin. The British, French, Japanese and Americans had sent agents to gather intelligence, but they were too small to overthrow Lenin. Nonetheless, they certainly provided valuable data to Western governments. The ultimate goal of the British cons piracy in 1918 was to undermine communist rule (5). However, it was kept secret because Western diplomats wanted to look clean in their political and military relationship with the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). The Bolshevik revolution heavily damaged the Russian economy, making it clear that the country will have to find support from the outside (4). But, destroyed economy did not worry Lenin and Trotsky, who were ready to conquer new territories because they thought that their â€Å"revolution would expireShow MoreRelatedKgb History Essay5533 Words   |  23 PagesUnion of Soviet Socialist Republics, controlled the USSR. The members of the committee were trained assassins as well as accomplished spies. Through several well-placed spies and paid civilians, the KGB was able to control the Politburo, the Soviet parliament, and the rest of the union. The KGB was in charge of the Siberian labor camps – even today, Vladimir Putin’s secret service, the FSB, is charged with the upkeep of those camps. Several of the greatest and most terrible leaders of the Soviet UnionRead MoreBorrowings from Russian in English7420 Words   |  30 Pagesothers are themselves borrowed from indigen ous peoples that Russians have come into contact with in Russian or Soviet territory. Compared to other source languages, very few of the words borrowed into English come from Russian.[1] Direct borrowing first began with contact between England and Russia in the 16th century and picked up heavily in the 20th century with the establishment of the Soviet Union as a major world power.[2] Most of them are used to denote things and notions specific to Russia, RussianRead MoreLenin13422 Words   |  54 PagesVladimir Ilyich Lenin Ð’Ð »Ã °Ã ´Ã ¸Ã ¼Ã ¸Ã'€ ИÐ »Ã'Å'Ð ¸Ã'‡ ЛÐ µÃ ½Ã ¸Ã ½ | | Lenin in 1920 | Chairman of the Council of People s Commissars of the Soviet Union (Premier of the Soviet Union) | In office 30 December 1922  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 21 January 1924 | Preceded by | Position created | Succeeded by | Alexei Rykov | Chairman of the Council of People s Commissars of the Russian SFSR | In office 8 November 1917  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 21 January 1924 | Preceded by | Position created | Succeeded by | Alexei Rykov | Member of the PolitburoRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesepochs, the twentieth century does not appear to be a very coherent unit. The beginnings and ends of what we choose to call centuries are almost invariably years of little significance. But there is little agreement over when the twentieth century c.e. arrived, and there were several points both before the year 2000 (the collapse of the Soviet Union, the reunification of Germany, the surge of globalization from the mid-1990s) and afterward (9/11, or the global recession of 2008) when one could

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Essay about Against the War On Drugs in America - 3550 Words

The Case Against America’s War on Drugs The legal prohibition on most psychoactive drugs has been in place in this country for the better part of a century. This policy of prohibition, however, has never been based on reason or careful consideration, but on the paranoia of a small segment of society and the indifferent willingness of the majority to accept this vocal minority’s claims without question. Outlawing any use of a particular drug is a violation of the basic freedom of individuals to act as they please in their private lives. However, even if one does not accept this belief, an objective analysis of the United States’ history of prohibition clearly shows that attempts to enforce this policy have done far more harm than good,†¦show more content†¦First of all, the Harrison act was only intended to regulate the sale of these drugs, making them available over the counter in small doses and in larger doses with a doctor’s prescription. Only later did the courts and law enforcement interp ret this law as a prohibition. Reasons for the law included the association of opium with the widely despised Chinese-American community and lobbying by medical and pharmaceutical associations who sought a monopoly on the sale of narcotics, but the primary concern was to meet international obligations created by the new international drug control treaty. Marijuana was not banned until 1937, but no medical testimony was presented to congress at this time. Thus prohibition of these drugs occurred with little deliberation and with little rational justification (Ostrowski). Alcohol prohibition, the noble experiment began in 1918. Few, if any, would deny that this experiment was a disaster. I will discuss the details of this experiment throughout the paper as it is relevant to the current war on drugs, but suffice to say that prohibition utterly failed to curb alcohol consumption while creating a black market for liquor which was dominated by violent criminals, and encouraging the consumption of hard liquor which was not subject to any legal quality controls. Alcohol prohibition was repealed in 1933. The Argument for Legalization Public fears that drug use poses a real threat to society and the general stigma attached toShow MoreRelatedDrug Trafficking And Its Effects On America1600 Words   |  7 Pages In a country of struggling economies, many have viewed the drug trade as one South American’ s most successful businesses. Latin America s drug trafficking industry has been depicted in United States popular culture through motion pictures such as Scarface and Traffic. The purpose of my research is to take away society’s perception of what Hollywood has depicted drug trade to be and bring out what narcotics trafficking really is, as well as trying to coincide with the motivations of those peopleRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1436 Words   |  6 Pagesdirection of most debates about marijuana concern drug liberalization as the nation gets more and more progressive with marijuana. Quite recently, a few states have went forward and legalized marijuana for recreational use, and even Canada has taken its first step towards marijuana legalization. According to a survey conducted by the Pew Research Center, a nonpartisan organization that provides information about t he issues, attitudes, and trends changing America, as of 2015, the support for marijuana isRead MoreWar on Drugs: Americas Fight against Drugs1278 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Americas War on Drugs: In the past 40 years, the American government has spent more than $2.5 trillion dollars on the war against drugs. The huge expenditure has been coupled by numerous the ad campaigns, clean-up on smuggling, and increase in illicit drug users and incarceration rates. Actually, the increase in illicit drug users currently stands at 19.9 million in the United States with huge supplies from Mexico. With the increase in both the expenditure and number of illegal drug users, thereRead MoreEssay on Columbia1712 Words   |  7 Pages America’s War on Drugs Chaos best describes the current state of the Republic of Colombia. Rebelling terrorist groups from within the country threaten to topple Colombia’s actual government. Again and again, Colombia has shown its inability to fight the rebelling terrorists and simultaneously protect its civilians from harm. America has several reasons to intervene, with its military force if necessary, in Colombia. America must be protected against drugs and the countless crimes and social problemsRead MoreEssay on The War On Drugs1079 Words   |  5 PagesIn recent years the so-called â€Å"war on drugs† has taken over the streets and back alleys of suburban America. It has caused a problem that mirrors the prohibition days of the 1920’s and early 30’s. Politicians trying to play â€Å"tough guy,† are only contributing to more violence. Their laws have created an underground drug-trade, in which modern drug-dealers have taken the place of the bootleggers of old. The real question is whether or not this â€Å"war† is working. Most people would like to believe thatRead More The War on Drugs is Failing Essay1228 Words   |  5 PagesThe War on Drugs is Failing â€Å"Prohibition will work great injury to the cause of temperance†¦ for it goes beyond the bounds of reason in that it attempts to control a man’s appetite by legislation and make a crime out of things that are not a crime. A prohibition law strikes a blow at the very principle upon which our government was founded† Abraham Lincoln On January 16, 1920 the Eighteenth Amendment was ratified by thirty-six states and became part of the Constitution. The intentionRead MoreThe American War On Drugs1598 Words   |  7 PagesThe American â€Å"War on Drugs† war created to keep an exorbitant amount of people behind bars, and in a subservient status. First, America has a storied history when it comes to marijuana use. However, within the last 50 years legislation pertaining to drug use and punishment has increased significantly. In the modern era, especially hard times have hit minority communities thanks to these drug laws. While being unfairly targeted by drug laws and law enforcement, minorities in America are having aRead More U.S. Drug Policy Versus Drug Reality Essay1334 Words   |  6 Pagesserious about winning the war on drugs, it will have to face some hard facts about the failure of its drug policy to date. Since Reagan introduced the war on drugs in the early 1980s, the focus of anti-drug legi slation has been on incarceration and eradication, not on drug education and treatment. Drug use is viewed as a crimethe same way that burglary and murder are viewed as crimeswithout examining the social and economic causes behind drug use. This categorization of drug use as criminal misrepresentsRead More America And The War On Drugs Essay1216 Words   |  5 Pagescountries with problems. Why does America care about what is happening in other countries like Columbia, when they have their own problems with drugs? The Untied States of America has a rather large drug trafficking problem but compared to Columbia it is fairly small. To help Columbia solve their problem the U.S. senate has decided to send troops over there and take control. This new involvement will have many consequences in and what can you make for instance the cost of a war, the loss and gain of jobsRead MoreThe Legacy of Ronald Reagan1004 Words   |  5 PagesRonald Reagan is to this date the oldest serving preside nt, and the effects of his presidency have affected not only the United States of America but most of the world as well. The consensus among historians is that Ronald Reagan left a lasting legacy that was a great one in numerous ways. His Reaganomics improved America’s economy greatly, and secured its future economic prosperity. He also fought communism head on and was able to end it in most parts of the world, but more importantly in Soviet

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Personal Goal Free Essays

Throughout my life there have been a lot of people, books and audio tapes that have taught me important lessons. For me, making the right decision in life is crucial as I believe we have only one life and one chance and we should make the most of it. In my life I want to be known for my successful career, my generosity and my positive influence towards people. We will write a custom essay sample on Personal Goal or any similar topic only for you Order Now I guess this is my long term goal in life and I am confident that my study in Northeastern University will take me closer towards my goal in life. Since I was twelve years old, I was in a position where I needed to choose between going to school in Indonesia, where I would stay close to my family and friends, or going to school in Australia, where I would get a better education, but be by myself, far away from my family and friends. I took action and moved from my comfort zone. Moving and living into a totally new country is certainly a great life experience which thought me that determination and self-motivation is the key in helping one succeed in life. My parents always remind me that when the time comes my responsibility is to continue our family business and taking care of my brother and sisters. It is in our culture that the eldest son in the family had the responsibility to take care of the whole family. I believe it is not an easy task but as a responsible son I will prepare and equipped myself with whatever I need to achieve this goal. My short term goal is to have a real working experience in one of the leading company in the United States. When choosing a University in United States, it was always my intention of not getting just a business theory but more importantly real working experience in a company. I do my research and finds that Northeastern University is known for its internship program in United States. In doing MBA degree at Northeastern, I will choose finance as my career track. I choose finance firstly because it is an important area that I need to understand in order to take my family business to the next stage and I also believe that by taking this career track it will get me ready to face the real business world. I am confident that by taking a MBA at Northeastern University will help me to achieve my short term goal of equipping me with knowledge and a real working experience that I really need. Determination and Self motivation is what will keep me moving towards my life goal and I believe that with strong determination and self motivation I will be able to accomplish all of my goals in life. Please answer the following questions: a) What have you learned in your research on Northeastern that has motivated you to apply? ) What unique contributions will you bring to the Northeastern community as a student? c) How will you benefit personally and professionally from your experience at Northeastern? A) The most appealing factor that motivated me to apply is the fact that Northeastern is one of the top Universities in United States that have the best internship program and the recommendation by people who claimed that the schools are so helpful with their students. I believe that University involvement in helping their student succeeding in their career is very important. I read a review that stated that Northeastern provide students with a lots of tools and workshop for their internship. B) In my career both in Indonesia and Australia, I had the opportunity to experience many different kinds of activity from sporting activity, community activity to working experience. My sporting experience includes representing Indonesia to play in an international U-13 competition, playing musical instrument in a band for a concert in Australia, one of a member in Indonesian Student Association in Australia, as well as having two years experience working as a marketing manager in a building material manufacturer company in Indonesia. As a student I am confident that my experience will bring unique contribution to Northeastern Community. C) Personally the most valuable thing that I could have is experiencing and learning in different culture, different environment and diverse people from all over the country. The chance of being able to be around different people from different country and background are priceless for me because it will open my mind about being able to adapt in a diverse environment and a challenge to be able to settle and work together with people from different culture and background. An experience outside university as well as in the workplace will no doubt give me a price less experience especially towards my career internationally, because in a business world we have to be able to deal with almost everyone and I will take this opportunity as my chance to practice this rare opportunity. I look forward to meeting new people from all over the world, making new friends, learning about the western culture, doing new activity and working together as a team. Another personal benefit is that living away from my family will make me able to be live independently and solving problems on my own. I believe that as I move along in my study at Northeastern I will have more and more benefit that right now I have not seen. How to cite Personal Goal, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Islam and the Quran

Introduction We live in a world with a plethora of religions. However, there is no doubt that religions play a significant role in the lives of people. Even those who do not subscribe to the tenets of any religion, at least they have something to say about religion. There are three major religions in the globe, which are Christianity, Judaism and Islam.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Islam and the Qur’an specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Each of these three religions has its own history that dates back very many centuries ago. Interestingly, people subscribing to the teachings of these religions have one thing in common: they believe in one God. The paper mainly dwells on Islam as a religion, and the views of Muslim worshippers about the world. The word Islam comes from the Arabic language and it simply means submission. In other words, those following the religion have to submit to certain powers—G od. Those who subscribe to the teachings of Islam are Muslims and they always submit themselves to God. It is also important to note that even Christians and Jews refer the one they submit to as God. Just like Christians and Jews, the Muslims also believe God created the universe and all that harbors in it. They all consider God as all-powerful and only Him that every creature should bow down to worship. This meticulous monotheism together with the teachings of these three major religions provides the foundation of having a common loyalty to God, and it surpasses race, group, ethnic group, and even different religious views. In other words, people of the same religion belong to one community irrespective of their ethnic background, color, nationality or tribe. Revelation of the Qur’an to Prophet Muhammad We cannot talk of Islam minus mentioning Prophet Muhammad. The historical accounts as mentioned in Hadith and other companions, starts by revealing the identity of Prophet Mo hammad. These stories depict that at 40 years of age, Muhammad devoted much of his time doing solemn prayers and trying to unravel the facets of creation. Islamic experts believe that Muhammad was a man of concern especially by what was going on in the world such as injustice, pervasive bigotry, tribal animosities, corruption, social unrest and many more. He therefore chose to intercede to God on behalf of the people. Muhammad could go up the mountains, or in serene places and mull over in seclusion. However, Muhammad never deserted his family, as he would join them later. In other words, he did not choose asceticism or monasticism, but instead, he choose to perform what he thought was right. In fact, if he went for many days up the mountain without returning soon, his wife, Khadija, would take him food and water.Advertising Looking for essay on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sometimes, he invited those le aving by the mountainside to share the food with him. According to Muslim scholars, the revelation of Qur’an to Prophet Mohammad was not a once event. The scholars go on to say that, anger Gabriel visited Prophet Mohammad and show him a verse inside the Qur’an, and that is how it started (Dermenghem 183). It is now over 1400 years ago since God (Allah) revealed the Qur’an to Prophet Mohammad. Just like the Christian Bible, the Qur’an is one of books that people read most. The Muslim scholars, some who were the architects of the Gregorian calendar, believe that Allah revealed the Qur’an to Prophet Muhammad on august 10, 610. Since the revelation of the Qur’an, Muslims from different backgrounds have always liked the book and they strongly believe it came from God. In fact, the love for the book is enormous making them to recite even some sections or verses in it. They have even gone ahead and can recite some quotes and some have even mastered the art of pursuing them in studies. Interestingly, historical scholars and other interested researchers have found it easy to ascertain the authenticity of the Qur’an. However, unlike the Bible, the Qur’an still uses the primary Arabic language making it even more authentic. As an example, I refer to the Qur’an in order to corroborate the idea of this revelation: Ramadan has always been the period when Islamic followers participate in fasting and helping the disadvantaged. Since this is the time of solemn prayer, Allah showed Laylat al-Qadr some parts of the Qur’an. While in prayer, angel Gabriel informed Mohammad that he had to read it, but Mohammad could not read. But after several trials, Mohammad read it (Quran 96.15). It is important to note that Allah revealed the Qur’an to Prophet Muhammad on several but different occasions. In fact, according to Islamic scholars, the revelation of the Qur’an took over 23 years characterizes by eith er Part by Part, or the entire chapter, or sometimes sections of a chapter. Comprising of 114 chapters and over 6,000 quotes, at least all Muslims enjoy reading the book with zeal and determination. Out of the 23 years, there are two sections: one comprising of the first 15 years that Muslims refer as Mecca, and the last 10 years that Muslims refer as the Medina period. The Mecca period is full of quotes (ayets) mainly dwell on the rudiments of Islamic faith and beliefs, for example, Faith in angels and Allah, the recognition of holy books, the judgment day, and Allah’s envoys among others. Conversely, the Medina period mainly highlights rituals, norms, ibadet, and legislation (Dermenghem 74-121).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Islam and the Qur’an specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More During the revelation of the Qur’an, Prophet Mohammad had to memorize everything bestowed upon him by Allah. Th rough teachings, Prophet Mohammed bestowed it upon the followers. The companions used their hearts, wrote down the ayets, and then together with Prophet Mohammad, they counterchecked in order to verify. Since there were no books during those times, stones, animal skins, leaves of palm trees became materials to carry the information. Interestingly, in order to preserve its authenticity, the angel Gabriel led Prophet Mohammad in reciting the Qur’an once in every year, and twice, in the year of his death. Today, a huge number of Muslims are able to recite the Qur’an having learnt it as early as pre-school years (Rahman 7-27). It is imperative to note that the Qur’an continues to inspire the lives of many Muslims. This is simply because it contains quotes (ayets) that talk about life issues and how people should live together in harmony. Additionally, the Qur’an is replete with science starting with geology, embryology to astronomy. Thus, it is the foundation of science knowledge, and very many scientists concur that it has imperative astounding and unfathomable accurate facts that enlightens people not only in the world of science, but also in real life situations. Many people also believe that the things said in the Qur’an are now evident in real life and many things have occurred thus, proving it even further. Additionally, the Qur’an is a source of inspiration to many as it encourages populations to apply their intelligences in order to handle certain situations. For instance, the Qur’an explains what happens during embryogenesis within the early 40 days. Those studying medicine and life sciences notes the in explicate accuracy of this fact. The fascinating stories in the Qur’an also explain the science of oceanography. For instance, the divisions of two seas, the waves, salinity and density of seas, the existence of clouds above the sky, all these explain the creation with authenticity. In fact, besides being a spiritual book, many Muslims consider it a scientific manual as well. The biggest factor however is that the Qur’an is a book full of ayets and quotes that make those interested in it brood over the grandeur of God (Rahman 183-197). Muslims on role of religion Since its revelation, people have come to discover their origin and existence. It covers the creation of man from the first descendant to the present one. Inside, numerous directions guide people on how to live. In other words, it sets out the rules and regulations of life, and those following it live a successful life.Advertising Looking for essay on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Qur’an also reveals stories of messengers, nations and other events that happened in the past, gives directions about the present, and projects the future. Notably, the Qur’an talks of the Judgment Day, that is, the day when every human being will stand before the Creator to give accounts of his/her life. In general, since its revelation, the Qur’an is like a torch that sheds light upon the history of humanity, continues to be an inspiration to many people, and teaches human values form one generation to another. Perhaps the chief role of religion is to teach the oneness in God. Since its revelations, Muslims have understood nothing other than being equal in the eyes of God irrespective of race, ethnic background, nationality or color. Like the Jewish and Christianity, Muslims view religion as a bond uniting people in God. For instance, the Qur’an is full of teachings on ethics and life, and goes ahead to explain that God manages all affairs through l ife and ethics, which are the foundation of consciousness. The teachings of Islam also prevail upon human beings to be merciful and show humility, charity, endurance, and honesty in all their endeavors. After all, the Qur’an regards human beings not pure and that they have inherent sins that may curtail them from doing what is right. Islam also teaches about faith and beseeches people to use faith in their actions. In fact, the Qur’an teaches that it is those with faith will monitor their deeds and actions no matter how weak they are to fall into the traps of sin. Islam also teaches obedience and this is one of the roles of any religion. Although not a threat, the teachings of Islam teach people to be careful in what they do because they will stand to account each deed on the Judgment Day. The other role of religion is to ensure that human beings are sincere in their daily endeavors, suffice to say that Islam educates people to be on the right side of history without i nfringing the right of their fellow human beings. Through Islam teachings as highlighted in the ayets and quotes, human beings can lead a life devoid of selfish motives, greed, immorality and many vices that are more negative (Sohail and Miller 180-200). Just like Jewish and Christianity, Islam roots for a better life. In other words, the Qur’an teaches that it is only in Allah that human beings obtain true happiness, conscious and satisfaction. Additionally, Islam also teaches on freedom of human beings and that each person is free to do the things they like as long as they do not infringe the rights of others. When people are free, it means they can make rational decisions according to their desires. The ideological aspect of human beings is evident when human beings feel free to what they love most without any form of inhibition. A pure balanced religion serves the right of giving human beings the avenues they should take in life and distinct rationale about choices they m ake. Islam leads in this through proportionate and realistic teachings that not only offer spiritual nourishment and placate, but also direction and morality. Consequently, many Muslims lead a life free of worries and one that is rich in self-discipline and self-control. These are necessary elements to prayer and fasting and play significant roles in discouraging tribal, cultural and nationalized prejudices. Thus, there is no doubt that Islam plays an imperative religious role that not only makes people to be conscious of their God, but also lead people into the realization of human dignity. Muslim and military affairs The Islamic military jurisprudence has not gone well down with many people who associate the religion with terror attacks. From Al-Qaeda in the Middle East to Al-shabaab in Somalia, many people especially non-Muslims associate Islam with terror activities. The Islamic scholars believe that Sharia (Islamic law) was among the things that Allah revealed to Prophet Mohamm ad. In fact, the historical context of Sharia law dates back to the time of establishment of the Medina. Serious interpretations from the Qur’an and the reconciliations from the recitations of Prophet Muhammad arrived at two paramount issues: the justness of war, and secondly, embargo to jihad. Following the tyrannical practices that had occurred to the Muslims as orchestrated by the Meccan Quraish, the interpreters of the teachings resorted to jihad as a military dimension of protecting the Muslims. Jihad became a course of action form the Creator to guard the Muslim community. Since then individual or groups of Muslim fellows have resorted into injunctions aimed at protecting their interests. However, critics have since accused the Muslim community of war injunctions, especially terrorism activities. Not once, the duel to curtail terrorism has led to catastrophic episodes. Nuclear proliferation and militarization have become a common concern of many nations. The western cou ntries do not seem to agree anymore with many countries dominated and ruled by Islamic law. This has resulted into misunderstandings and invitation of sanctions related to trade, standardization of the military, and other embargos (Ali and Rehman 321-343). Territorial expansion of Islam Following the revelation of the Qur’an, Islamic civilization has spread to virtually every corner of the world. We are looking back one century after the death of Prophet Mohammad and you will find Muslims in Spain and other western countries. A series of empires based their rule on Islamic law and thus promoting Islamic culture that spread so fast. There is no doubt that the military struggles and injunctions during the First and Second World Wars led t the territorial expansion of Islam siring new cultures and other notable political and scientific leaders. In conclusion, the Qur’an was important in unleashing reasonably elevated levels of literacy to the common population (Montgomery 215-231). Works Cited Ali, Shaheen and Rehman, Javaid. â€Å"The Concept of Jihad in Islamic International Law†. Journal of Conflict Security Law. 10(3), 2005, pp. 321–343. Print. Dermenghem, Emile. (1958). Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) and the Islamic  tradition. New York: Harper Brothers, 1958. Print. Montgomery, Watt. â€Å"KhÄ rijite thought in the Umayyad Period†. Der Islam. 36(3), 1960, pp. 215–231. Print. Rahman, Fazlur. Major Themes of the Qur’an. (Second ed.). Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2009. Print. Sohail, Hashmi and Miller, David. Boundaries and Justice: diverse ethical perspectives. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2001. Print. The Qur’an. Trans. M. A. S. Abdel Haleem. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print. This essay on Islam and the Qur’an was written and submitted by user Jaylene Douglas to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Fundamentals of Land Law Essay †Striking a Balance

Fundamentals of Land Law Essay – Striking a Balance Free Online Research Papers Fundamentals of Land Law Essay Striking a Balance Land law exists today to balance and regulate the rights of both purchaser and vendor upon a transfer of land. Before the flood of 1925 legislation affecting land transactions, purchasers of legal title took subject to many unpredictable and undiscoverable interests, disproportionately burdening them with extensive and expensive obligations and rendering vendors’ interests paramount. The comprehensive reforms encapsulated in the Land Registration Acts (LRA) of 1925 and 2002 overhauled the oft-criticised system of land transfer, affording both parties a more secure basis for the transfer of land. The major impetus behind the Acts was to achieve parity with the mirror principle of conveyancing, attaining a â€Å"truly transparent, accurate and comprehensive† Land Register, reflecting the wealth of interests in relation to titles in land and placing parties on more equal footing. Unfortunately, the 1925 Act failed to eradicate all ‘cracks in the mirror’, instead preserving the relevance of certain interests which may ‘override’ registration. These ‘overriding’ interests burden registered land by operating on a superior plane to other registrable interests, binding purchasers outright and disproportionately empowering the overriding interest-holder. Although the majority of overriding interests provided by the 1925 Act are largely uncontentious, controversy has surrounded the overriding status of interests belonging to persons ‘in actual occupation’ of the land . To this end, LRA 1925, s.70(1)(g) protects an interest in land where its owner is in actual occupation on the land. The open-ended nature of this provision has not unexpectedly been the subject of extensive litigation. Although the Law Commission initially felt compelled to recommend the abolition of all overriding interests, the sentiment was that in order to protect occupiers who cannot reasonably be expected to protect their rights through registration, this sub-category and its accompanying controversy should be retained . Lord Denning’s justification was to protect occupiers from â€Å"having their rights lost in the welter of registration† . The LRA 2002 has thus upheld overriding status of interests of persons in ‘actual occupation’, albeit curbing and clarifying the parameters within which the rights of occupiers can impinge upon purchasers . Now enshrined in LRA 2002, Schedule 3, paragraph 2, overriding interests of those in ‘actual occupation’ subsist as a glaring ‘crack’ in the mirror principle, despite the elucidation and qualification now provided. Analysis of the issues surrounding overriding interests and ‘actual occupationâ €™ is necessary to determine whether balance has been, or will ever be, achieved between purchasers and those in ‘actual occupation’. Within the ambit of Schedule 3, paragraph 2, occupancy itself is not overriding, but rather the interest the occupier has in the land he occupies has the potential to become overriding. Actual occupation, therefore, â€Å"is merely the trigger which activates the statutory protection† of the interest. The types of interest falling within its scope are not clarified, and judicial uncertainty has reflected this lack of clarity. The initial belief under the 1925 Act was that only proprietary rights in the full sense – enduring and capable of being transmitted – can override . In Ainsworth , Russell LJ said that a right for the purposes of s.70(1)(g) must â€Å"have the quality of being capable of enduring through different ownerships of the land† , thus relegating a beneficial interest under a trust to a minor interest which only registration will protect. Their Lordships drew a distinction between personalty and proprietary rights, the latter of which could only be eligible for overriding status. However, judicial uncertainty persisted in the aftermath of Ainsworth, with judges adopting â€Å"markedly differing attitudes to the rights in s.70† . Such a miscellany of interests as a right to rectify , a tenant’s right to buy under the Landlord and Tenant Act 1987 and an unpaid vendor’s lien were all held to fall within the ambit of s.70(1)(g), rendering reconciliation difficult with the notion that only strictly proprietary interests will suffice. Nevertheless, Schedule 3, paragraph 2 upholds application only to proprietary rights due to its clarification that the interest must be one â€Å"affecting the estate† . Following a move during the Bill’s debate to extend the categories of beneficiaries in actual occupation , the boundaries of Ainsworth are not immovable, and in the wake of the seminal case of Boland , beneficial interests under a trust are permitted overriding interests. In the latter case, a wife had an unregistered beneficial interest in the family home which her husband was the registered proprietary owner of. When the husband was unable to repay the mortgage loan, the House of Lords held that the wife’s beneficial interest was sufficient to amount to a proprietary interest in the land . Other successful interests include equitable leases and tenancies , estate contracts as options to purchase , and rights arising out of estoppel . It is accepted that an occupier’s interest must be fully enforceable and unencumbered at the date of the disposition of the land in order to be imbued with overriding status. In Mendelsohn , a mother had knowledge of a building society’s mortgage to her son for part of the purchase price of a property she also paid part of, and then she argued that she had an overriding interest due to her actual occupation. The Court of Appeal held that her knowledge of the mortgage equated to implied consent to being subject to the mortgage, thus estopping her claim by virtue of her silent representation . This had embellished the intrinsic quality of her right, thus precluding reliance upon ‘actual occupation’ to make it overriding. The concept of overreaching in a trust scenario renders an interest, which would otherwise be overriding, lost and unable to be empowered by ‘actual occupation’. Originally enshrined in s.2 Law of Property Act 1925, overreaching applies where there are two or more trustees in land. Upon disposition of the land, the beneficiaries’ interests are overreached and the sale monies go directly to the trustees, essentially detaching the beneficiaries’ interests from the estate. Although overreaching failed in Boland due to there being only one trustee, in Flegg overreaching occurred where a husband and wife were trustees in a house that they shared with the wife’s parents, who were beneficiaries under the trust. When the house was sold, the beneficiaries’ interests were overreached and the proceeds went to the trustees. As Lord Templeman surmised, â€Å"actual occupation is not an interest in itself† . The effect of overreaching is that purcha sers’ rights are subject to â€Å"the waywardness of actual occupation† if purchase is made from less than two trustees, thus placing purchasers in the precarious position of taking subject to beneficiaries’ rights upon transfer from one trustee. The ambit of ‘actual occupation’ envisaged by the Acts has been contentious since its inception in LRA 1925, resulting in a catalogue of jurisprudence concerning how exactly to ascertain actual occupation. Under s.70(1)(g), a purchaser was bound pro tanto, rendering occupiers’ interests overriding whether discoverable by a purchaser or not . Although the draft Land Registration Bill preceding the 2002 Act included a partial definition of actual occupation as being â€Å"physically present there†, the 2002 Act did not incorporate this provision, so actual occupation remains largely undefined . Had this provision been included, it would have given credence to Boland, where their Lordships made an uncompromising set of judgments observing actual occupation to comprise â€Å"ordinary words of plain English† and to constitute â€Å"a plain factual situation† . These judgments suggest that ‘actual occupation’ requires no â€Å"entitle ment in law† and that concepts of notice are irrelevant to actual occupation , thus bestowing occupiers with the ability to trump purchasers through the simple fact of occupation. LRA 2002 provides that an occupier cannot claim an overriding interest where the purchaser had â€Å"actual knowledge† of the occupation or where occupation â€Å"would not have been obvious on a reasonably careful inspection of the land† . This has introduced a notice-based test, radically altering the nature of establishing actual occupation and rebalancing purchaser and occupier. Purchases of unregistered land operate on the doctrine of notice, and although Lord Wilberforce compared notice to actual occupation in Boland , he rejected the notion that it should be applied similarly, upholding the ‘absolutist’ factual test . However, the ‘constitutionalist’ view, considering notice as a context in which to interpret actual occupation, has come to the fore. Constitutionalism originates from the rule in Hunt v Luck , that occupation gives notice of the occupier’s rights, and the actual occupation rule was drafted to reflect this, albeit n ot giving effect to the full doctrine of constructive notice. The two approaches represent the conflicting interests of occupier and purchaser. The tension between the approaches is evident in Rosset , where Purchas LJ said that the individual’s overriding interest depended upon both physical presence and whether â€Å"appropriate inquiries made by the bank [would] have elicited the fact of her interest† . Although actual occupation fails to give credence to the full doctrine of notice, Mustill LJ said that â€Å"even if constructive notice no longer applies in this field, the old law still gives a flavour to the new† . Rosset created a tentative balance between the approaches to actual occupation, leaving the conflict unresolved until the inception of the LRA 2002. Nevertheless, a notice-based test of occupation can be elicited from Schedule 3, paragraph 2, serving to burden both purchaser and occupier. For purchasers, a burden is imposed to inquire of persons in actual occupation â€Å"what rights he or she has in the land† . This duty is unsatisfied via simple inquiry of the vendor, as â€Å"reliance on the untrue ipse dixit of the [vendor] will not suffice† ; inquiry must be made of actual occupiers to take free of their interests. The notice approach also burdens occupiers, however, as failure to disclose interests when inquired revokes the right to receive overriding status . Although this redresses the balance between occupier and purchaser, it may be unreasonable to bind occupiers to surrender interests in the contingency that, as Dixon submits, â€Å"the right-holder knows that the consequences of disclosure will be the loss of the family home† . It is clear then, that the contemporary approach taken to determining questions of actual occupation under Schedule 3, paragraph 2 â€Å"expresses a decisive and unquestioned policy choice in favour of purchasers† . In establishing the intricacies of actual occupation, the abundance of litigation under the 1925 Act provides guidance. Although occupation must be intentional and ongoing, it is not precluded by â€Å"a temporary and fortuitous absence† . In Chhokar v Chhokar , a woman giving birth remained in actual occupation of her home during her confinement in hospital. However, a pattern of substantial absence will prove fatal to a claim of actual occupation . Discontinuous occupation owing to regular and routine absences also fails to preclude actual occupation, as in Tizard a homeowner was in actual occupation of her house despite living at her sister’s house for two nights per week. This lack of constancy allows occupiers enforceability of their interests without adhering to stringent standards of occupation. Judicial opinions are divergent regarding an individual occupying land through an agent. In Caswell, a stepfather could not claim actual occupation through his stepdaughter staying in the property as his agent. However, in Rosset , the presence of builders working on the house was sufficient for the owner employing them to be in actual occupation. Conversely in Lloyd v Dugdale , an individual could not claim an overriding interest if occupation was effected through a company owned by that individual . This instils in interest-holders the requirement to be the party in actual occupation for their interest to be overriding. Preparatory acts prior to taking occupation are insufficient in procuring actual occupation, as laying carpets and installing furniture in Cann failed to amount to actual occupation. Cann additionally clarified the stage at which individuals must be in actual occupation as being at the moment the transfer is executed, rather than the moment of registration. This is now supported by LRA 2002, which expressly states that interest and occupation must subsist â€Å"at the time of the disposition† . This precludes individuals from occupying land post-purchase but pre-registration and claiming overriding interests against purchasers, thus holding purchasers’ interests above those of occupiers. It is now established that certain persons are excluded absolutely from actual occupation. A wife was once thought to be a mere â€Å"shadow† of her husband’s occupation, and although discredited in Boland, the same concept was adopted in Robinson to define children, even if beneficial owners under a trust, as being in â€Å"shadows of occupation of their parent† . The rationale for this was that no enquiry could be made of children, especially those of tender years , which has been roundly criticised as â€Å"curiously at odds with reality† . The Robinson judgment undoubtedly favours the interests of purchasers, by completely refusing to acknowledge a potential source of overriding interest. Where an individual owns rights over an area greater than he is in actual occupation of, Ferrishurst v Wallcite offers guidance. In that case, an option to purchase the lease of land greater than the area in actual occupation was held to be overriding. This decision heavily burdened purchasers and extended overriding interests for occupiers, and as an attempt to rebalance the relationship, the LRA 2002 has reversed this decision, providing that any interest protected by occupation is restricted to the land which is actually occupied . As Dixon concludes, â€Å"the legal extent of the interest that overrides is to be co-terminus with the extent of the actual occupation† . The protections afforded to both occupier and purchaser have made for an edgy equilibrium throughout the evolution of overriding interests in relation to actual occupation, but always the law has struggled to balance the disparities in this relationship. Although purchasers have historically faced hardship in overcoming the â€Å"intermediate, or hybrid, class† of overriding interests wielded by occupiers, their position has been improved somewhat by the evolution of both statutory and common law. However, the interests of the two parties have yet to achieve legal equivalence. The very existence of overriding interests has been labelled as â€Å"disquieting† for purchasers, not least because indemnity cannot be awarded to a purchaser trapped by such an interest . This has placed purchasers on an uphill struggle to have their interests judicially and statutorily recognised and accorded significance that endures today. Solace lies at the advent of compulsory e-conveyancing, promoted heavily by the 2002 Act, which envisages synchronicity of disposition and registration in land transfers . This development will render many equitable interests unprotected unless registered, despite being currently overriding upon actual occupation. Schedule 3, paragraph 2 will then be restricted only to the protection of those occupiers’ interests which arise informally, through resulting or constructive trusts or through estoppel , effectively narrowing an occupier’s ability to override registration. The underlying and pervading expectation that overriding interests will eventually be drawn onto the Land Register through positive registration will ultimately abolish the subsistence of occupiers’ unregistered and overriding interests upon a transfer of registered land which so adversely affects purchasers. Bibliography Gray Gray, Core Texts: Land Law (4th edn, 2005, OUP) Green Cursley, Land Law (5th edn, 2004, Palgrave Macmillan) Martin, EA (ed.), Dictionary of Law (2003, OUP) Smith, R, Property Law: Cases and Materials (2nd edn, 2003, Longman) Thomas, M, Blackstone’s Statutes on Property Law 2005-2006 (13th edn, 2005, OUP) Thompson, M, Modern Land Law (2nd edn, 2003, OUP) Bogusz, B, â€Å"Bringing Land Registration into the Twenty-First Century – The Land Registration Act 2002† MLR 2002, 65(4), 556-567 Dixon, M, â€Å"The Reform of Property Law and the Land Registration Act 2002: A Risk Assessment† Conv. 2003, Mar/Apr, 136-156 Kenny, P H, â€Å"Children Are Spare Ribs† Conv. 1997, Mar/Apr, 84-85 Pascoe, S, â€Å"Triumph for Overriding Interests† Conv. 1999, Mar/Apr, 144-149 Smith, R J, â€Å"Overriding Interests and Wives† (1979) 95 LQR 501 Sparkes, P, â€Å"The Discoverability of Occupiers of Registered Land† Conv. 1989, Sep/Oct, 342-354 Tee, L, â€Å"The Rights of Every Person in Actual Occupation: An Enquiry into section 70(1)(g) of the Land Registration Act 1925† (1998) 57 CLJ 328 â€Å"Remedies: No Overriding Interest† P.L.B. 2002, 22(7), 52 Law Commission, Land Registration for the Twenty-First Century (1998) Law Com No 254 Joint Law Commission and HM Land Registry Report (2001) Law Com 271 Boone, K (2004), Actual Occupation. 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Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Prosody - Systematic Study of the Meter of Poetry

Prosody - Systematic Study of the Meter of Poetry Prosody is a technical term used in linguistics and poetry to describe the patterns, rhythms or meters of a language. Prosody can refer to the rules for the pronunciation of a language as well as its versification. The correct pronunciation of words includes:(1)enunciation,(2)proper accenting and(3)making sure each syllable has its required length. Syllable Length: Syllable length doesnt seem terribly important for pronunciation in English. Take a word like laboratory. It looks as though it should be divided syllabically into: la-bo-ra-to-ry So it appears to have 5 syllables, but when someone from the U.S. or U.K. pronounces it, there are only 4. Oddly, the 4 syllables arent the same. Americans heavily stress the first syllable. lab-ra-,to-ry In the U.K. you probably hear: la-bor-a-,try When we stress a syllable, we hold it an extra time. The Latin for time is tempus and the word for the duration of time, especially in linguistics, is mora. Two short syllables or morae count for one long syllable. Latin and Greek have rules about whether a given syllable is long or short. More than in English, length is very important. Why Do You Need to Know About Prosody?: Whenever you read ancient Greek or Latin poetry you are reading the writing of a man or woman who has replaced the mundane with the loftier speech of poetry. Part of the flavor of the poetry is conveyed by the tempo of the words. To read the poetry woodenly without trying to grasp the tempo would be like reading sheet music without playing it even mentally. If such an artistic rationale doesnt motivate you to try to learn about Greek and Roman meter, hows this? Understanding the meter will help you to translate. Foot: A foot is a unit of a meter in poetry. A foot will usually have 2, 3 or 4 syllables in Greek and Latin poetry. 2 Morae (Remember: one short syllable has one time or mora.) A foot composed of two short syllables is called pyrrhic. A pyrrhic foot would have two times or morae. 3 Morae A trochee is a long syllable followed by a short and an iam(b) is a short syllable followed by a long. Both of these have 3 morae. 4 Morae A foot with 2 long syllables is called a spondee. A spondee would have 4 morae. Uncommon feet, like the dispondee, can have 8 morae, and there are special, long patterned ones, like the Sapphic, named after the famous woman poet Sappho of Lesbos. Trisyllabic Feet: There are eight possible feet based on three syllables. The two most common are:(1)the dactyl, which is named visually for the finger, (long, short, short) and(2)the anapest (short, short, long). AnapestDactylic Hexameter Feet of four or more syllables are compound feet. Verse: A verse is a line of poetry using feet according to a specified pattern or meter. A meter can refer to a single foot in a verse. If you have a verse made up of dactyls, each dactyl is a meter. A meter is not always a single foot. For instance, in a line of iambic trimeter, each meter or metron (pl. metra or metrons) consists of two feet. Dactylic Hexameter: If the meter is dactyl, with 6 meters in the verse, you have a line of dactylic hexameter. If there are only five meters, it is pentameter. Dactylic hexameter is the meter that was used in epic poetry or heroic poetry. There is one additional important bit of confusing information: the meter used in dactylic hexameter can be either dactyl (long, short, short) or a spondee (long, long). Why? They have the same number of morae. Diaresis - Division in a Line of VerseCaesura - Division in a Line of Dactylic HexameterTrochaic TrimeterIambic Trimeter Meter for the AP Exam: For the AP Latin - Vergil Exam, students need to know dactylic hexameters and be able to determine the length of each syllable. - UU|- UU|- UU|- UU|- UU|- X. The last syllable may be taken to be long since the sixth foot is treated as a spondee. Except in the fifth syllable, a long syllable can replace the two shorts (UU).